Giovanni Previtali, storico dellʼarte militante

Previtali

BOOK: Arturo Galansino, Giovanni Previtali, storico dellʼarte militante, “Prospettiva”, nn. 149-152, gennaio-ottobre 2013 [2014] (Centro Di).

Allievo di Roberto Longhi, Giovanni Previtali tentò di rinnovare la tradizionale connoisseurship con nuove istanze metodologiche. La sua attività scientifica si sviluppa attorno a un’impressionante varietà di interessi, portati avanti con coerenza durante l’arco della sua carriera: dalla riscoperta delle aree “minori” allo studio della letteratura artistica e della storia della critica, dalla riflessione metodologica alla politica culturale.

Previtali fu un energico animatore di mostre, imprese editoriali e culturali, distinguendosi per la presenza costante, in alcuni casi polemica, sulla stampa nazionale. Tutta la sua attività va interpretata alla luce dell’impegno morale e sociale che egli attribuiva al ruolo dello storico dell’arte: un impegno che non andava disgiunto da quello politico.

Il libro si svolge su tre livelli in parte indipendenti: un saggio, un apparato di note e una copiosa appendice documentaria divisa in carteggi e appunti, interventi inediti, progetti editoriali. La narrazione inizia con l’approdo di Previtali, verso la metà degli anni cinquanta, nel mondo di Roberto Longhi, e gli studi nell’ateneo fiorentino sotto il suo magistero.

Parte di rilievo ha il soggiorno a Parigi del 1961, dove il giovane studioso vive la vita della capitale francese tra spettacoli teatrali, mostre e scontri di piazza e dove coglie il senso di un vibrante contesto culturale, in cui si alternano vivi ritratti di alcuni protagonisti della storia dell’arte di quel tempo, tra i quali Anthony Blunt, Vitale Bloch, André Chastel, Michel Laclotte.

Il ritorno a Firenze coincide con la partecipazione alla redazione di ‘Paragone’ e con l’uscita di due libri fondamentali per la storiografia del Novecento (La fortuna dei primitivi, Torino 1964, e Giotto e la sua bottega, Milano 1967).

La morte di Roberto Longhi nel 1970 è il fatto simbolico attorno al quale cambia la vita di Previtali. Con la conseguente uscita da ‘Paragone’ si crea una duratura frattura all’interno della scuola di Longhi, e si arriverà nel 1975 alla fondazione di ‘Prospettiva’, voluta assieme all’amico archeologo Mauro Cristofani.

Questo periodo è segnato anche dall’esperienza nell’Enciclopedia Feltrinelli Fischer, opera concepita nel nome di Longhi, ma contraddistinta da un’ispirazione marxista e dall’apertura di Previtali verso nuove metodologie, quali lo strutturalismo.

Il suo ruolo di consigliere presso l’Einaudi segna un rinnovato interesse per l’iconologia di Panofsky, per il mondo del Warburg Institute, grazie al rapporto con Ernst H. Gombrich, e per le teorie antropologiche di George Kubler.

Impegnato nella sua intensa attività didattica senese, gli anni settanta lo vedono alla guida della Storia dell’arte italiana Einaudi, un’impresa titanica portata avanti tra scontri, accesi dibattiti ed animosità.

La narrazione si chiude all’inizio degli anni ottanta, in concomitanza con il decennale della morte di Longhi e con il convegno di studi a lui dedicato. Questi anni vedono Previtali ritornare a riflettere sul ruolo e l’insegnamento del proprio maestro, in particolare intorno al tema, eminentemente longhiano, di Caravaggio.

A tratti simile a un romanzo, oltre a farci conoscere il personaggio e la sua opera, questo libro rappresenta un viatico per ripercorrere trent’anni di storia dell’arte italiana e osservare alla giusta distanza il contesto culturale e politico che ha caratterizzato quel periodo.

Indice

Premessa, pp. 9-10
Con Longhi, pp. 10-18
Da Roma a Firenze, pp. 19-20
Cronache fiorentine, pp. 20-22
Roma, pp. 23-32
Giro di mostre, pp. 33-35
Milano, pp. 36-44
Comunisti e radicali, pp. 44-51
Tentativi, pp. 52-53
Parigi, pp. 54-63
Scelte di libri, pp. 64-66
Oltre la monografia, pp. 66-75
Intorno al Vasari, pp. 75-76
Fortuna della Fortuna dei primitivi, pp. 77-82
Primitivi tra “gusto” e “fortuna”, pp. 83-85
1964, pp. 86-97
Sotto il diluvio, pp. 98-99
Intorno alla scultura, pp. 100-124
Sopravvivere ai settanta, pp. 125-132
Da ‘Paragone’ a ‘Prospettiva’, pp. 133-135
L’Enciclopedia Feltrinelli Fischer, pp. 136-140
Verso la Storia dell’arte italiana, p. 141-145
Lavori in corso, pp. 146-152
Querelle intorno alla Storia dell’arte, pp. 153-156
L’eredità di Longhi, pp. 157-161

Galleria fotografica dell’attività senese dei primi anni ottanta, pp. 162-166.

Documenti, raccolti da Arturo Galansino
Carteggi e appunti, pp. 169-248
Interventi inediti, pp. 248-275
Progetti editoriali, pp. 276-335
Testimonianze, pp. 336-337.

Una galleria fotografica della vita e delle amicizie, pp. 338-347
Indice dei nomi, pp. 350-362
English Abstracts, p. 363.

Cliccla qui per leggere l’Indice nel dettaglio.

History Books in the Anglo-Norman World

CONFERENCE: History Books in the Anglo-Norman World, Trinity College Dublin, Department of History of Art and Architecture, Synge Theatre, Arts Building, Dublin, 22 – 23 May 2015.

In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries history (interpreted as both the recent past and a period stretching back to include the biblical narrative) seems to have become a major interest for both the educated elite and a growing audience who accessed ideas through vernacular texts. New chronicles and annals were produced, together with accounts of the histories of particular peoples, nations and subjects.

At the same time, history was explored through images in books and other media. Much historical writing in this period dealt with issues of conquest and identity, which were often allied to geography, ethnicity or particular institutions. The ‘History Books’ project, funded by the Marie Curie Programme (FP7), will examine surviving medieval manuscripts in order to investigate the writing of history in areas controlled by the Anglo-Norman Empire, concentrating on the period 1100-1300. In particular the project will explore the use of images in the presentation of history in books and beyond.

Programme

22 May 2015, 13.00
* Laura Cleaver, Welcome and introduction to the ‘History Books in the Anglo-Norman World Project’.

Session 1
* Anne Lawrence-Mathers (University of Reading), Computus, Chronology and the Calculation of Time in English Twelfth-Century Chronicles
* Michael Staunton (University College Dublin), Did the Purpose of English History Change During the Twelfth Century?
* Mark Zumbuhl, [tbc].

Session 2
* Andrea Worm (University of Graz), England’s Place Within Salvation History in a Thirteenth-Century Copy of Peter of Poitiers’ Compendium historiae (British Library, Cotton MS Faustina B VII)
* Diarmuid Scully (University College Cork), The Vision of History in a Manuscript of Gerald of Wales’ Topographia Hibernica and Expugnatio Hibernica (National Library of Ireland, MS 700)
* Caoimhe Whelan (Trinity College Dublin), A New Version of an Old Story: Reading the Past in Late Medieval Ireland.

23 May 2015, 9.30
Session 3
* Gleb Schmidt (University College, Saint Petersburg), The Circulation of Manuscripts Containing Excerptum Roberti Herefordensis de Chronica Mariani Scotti in the Anglo-Norman World
* Laura Pani (University of Udine), Paul the Deacon’s Historia Langobardum in Anglo-Norman England
* Jaakko Tahkokallio (King’s College London), The Twelfth-Century Audience of William of Malmesbury, Henry of Huntingdon and Geoffrey of Monmouth in the Light of the Codicological Evidence.

Session 4
* Charlie Rozier (Durham University), Durham Cathedral Priory and its Library of History, c.1090-c.1130
* Stephen Church (University of East Anglia), King John’s Books.

Session 5
* Benjamin Pohl (Ghent University), An Illustrated Chronicle from Early Eleventh- Century Normandy: Dudo of St. Quentin’s Historia Normannorum
* Laura Slater (University of York), Picturing the Past in Matthew Paris’ Vie de Seint Auban.
* Jane Gilbert (University College London), Translating History: British Library, Royal MS 20 A ii.

Session 6
* Kathryn Gerry (Memphis College of Art), Artists, Abbots and Saints: Visual and Material Approaches to Cult at St Albans Abbey in the Long Twelfth Century
* Diarmuid O Riain, Marginally Wrong: The Canterbury Tale Behind the Confusion of Two Irish Saints in Marsh’s Library MS Z 3.1.5.

Please register by contacting Laura Cleaver.

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Reading, Scholarship and the Art of the Book

CONFERENCE: Reading, Scholarship and the Art of the Book at Reading Abbey, Reading University, Henley Business School, Whiteknights Campus, Room G10, 17 April 2015. Contact: GCMS@reading.ac.uk.

Founded by King Henry I in 1121, the abbey dedicated to the Virgin and St John Evangelist at Reading flourished throughout the Middle Ages. Amongst its famous treasures was the arm of St James, a popular object of pilgrimage. Less well-known are its manuscript treasures, but from the twelfth century the abbey boasted a rich library. Some of these manuscripts were produced in the abbey’s scriptorium, but others were acquired as gifts or through purchase. This conference will explore the evidence for the production and use of books at Reading from its foundation to the dispersal of its possessions at the Reformation.

Programme

Session 1
* Lindy Grant (Reading), Reading Abbey in a cultural and intellectual, international context
* Tessa Webber (Cambridge), Reading in the Refectory at Reading Abbey.

Session 2
* Michael Gullick (independent scholar), Reflections on the Reading Abbey Romanesque Book Collections and Documents
* Laura Cleaver (Dublin), History Books at Reading and Bec
* Anne Lawrence (Reading), The Reading Abbey computus manuscript and its context.

Session 3
* Nigel Morgan (Cambridge), The Calendar and Litany of Reading Abbey
* Cyndy Johnston (London), “In the custom of this country”: The Transmigration of Bolognese Decorative Style in Thirteenth-Century Oxford and Reading Abbey Manuscripts.

Session 4
* Catherine Leglu (Reading), An Anglo-Norman translation of the Bible at Reading Abbey: London BL Royal 1 C III
* Brian Kemp (Reading), The Reading Abbey Formulary.

Closing remarks and update on the Reading Abbey ruins; followed by wine reception.

Source: Medieval Art Reserach

Crossroads: East and West

 Iznik

CALL FOR PAPERS: Crossroads: East and West. Cultural contacts, transfers and interchanges between East and West in the Mediterra- nean, 2nd International conference for PhD Students, University of Split & Department of Art History, Split, Croatia, 1 – 19 September 2015.

The theme of the conference addresses regions of Europe and Middle East which, in Classical Antiquity, made part of both “East” and “West”. Exoticism has been a fundamental part of western perception of “East” from the time of Herodot who in the Histories, for example, depicts Scythians as bloodthirsty barbarians. This ambivalent relation towards foreign and exotic nations has persisted from the Classical Antiquity throughout Renaissance well into the Modern era.

The East-West dichotomy can be recognized in cultural influences between East and West through studying interdependence of East and West in the Mediterranean, as well as through their standoffs in the history of art practices. The conference will deal with cultural contacts, exchange, relocations and social trends that enabled creation of complex concepts and idea-networks throughout history. The symposium also questions the ways in which “West” has exoticised “East” as well as the ways in which “East” has perceived “West”, through the prism of postcolonial and cultural translation theories.

The international conference is intended for PhD students and recent PhD graduates from different fields of humanities and social sciences, who are hereby invited to participate.

The proposed topics for interdisciplinary discussions are:
1. Orientalism in European art and culture
• Europe and Byzantium: Ex Oriente lux et luxus
• Venice and Constantinople: Competition, emulation and/or imitation, mytho- graphy
• Europe and Ottoman Empire in early Modern Age: Between exoticism and demonization
• Orient in culture and art of European Romanticism: Images and myth of Orient (fine arts, archaeology, literature, philosophy and music)
• The Middle East in European paintings, prints, book illustrations and crafts from Romanticism to the beginning of 20th century
• Oriental forms in 19th and 20th century western architecture
• European travellers and artists in the East: Exchange of ideas, concepts and art practices
• Curating and exhibiting art from Eastern Europe.

2. Meeting points: Intersections, syncretisms, conflicts between East and West in the Balkans
• Byzantine Empire and foundations of regional art centres in the Balkans since Late Antiquity until the end of the Middle Ages
• Struggle for ecclesiastical supremacy between Rome and Constantinople – interactions between Orthodox and Catholic Christianity, influence on arts, visual expression and iconography
• Venice and the Balkans in the late Middle Ages and the early Modern Age: Conflicts, coexistence, cultural and artistic dialogue
• Ottoman invasion of the Balkans: Impact on culture and art, Ottoman discourse, establishment of transcultural forms in contact regions, assimilations and cultural hybrids
• The twilight of political and cultural powers (Ottoman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, Venetian Republic) and creation of new national states: Art as reflection of political and national interests (nationalization and ideologization of art)
• The image of Turks in the art and culture of the Western Balkans and Central Europe (visual, historical, literal, ethnographic and cultural-anthropological aspect).

3. East and West in the age of globalization
• Ideologies, ideological discourses, mythologemes and their artistic representations and functions
• Western stereotypes of Middle Eastern culture and arts: Their genesis, influences and transformations
• Artistic concepts and theories of art
• Contemporary artistic and architectural trends: Elements of tradition, modern and global
• Contemporary perception of Islam in art: Historical, political, religious, cultural; artist-audience interaction
• Contemporary art practices, literature, cinematography and popular culture: East-West encounters, coexistence and antagonisms.

Proposals should include name, contact information (address, phone number, e-mail), title of the paper and an abstract in English of maximum 400 words. Proposal should be sent by e-mail to: phdconference2015@gmail.com; or by post to: Art History Module, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences in Split, Hrvojeva 8, 21000 Split, Croatia (with the note “Conference for PhD students”).

Deadline: 15 April 2015.

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48th Spring Byzantine Symposium (London)

CONFERENCE: Whose Mediterranean is it anyway? Cross-cultural inter- action between Byzantium and the West 1204-1669, 48th Spring Byzantine Symposium, The Open University, Milton Keynes, 28 – 30 March 2015.

Please note: British Summer time begins on Sunday 29th March. Clocks go forward one hour.

The Early Modern Mediterranean basin was an area where many different rich cultural traditions came in contact with each other, were often forced to co-exist, and frequently learned to reap the benefits of co-operation. Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Muslims, Jews, and their interactions all contributed significantly to the cultural development of modern Europe.

The aim of this conference is to address, explore, re-examine and re-interpret one specific aspect of this cross-cultural interaction in the Mediterranean – that between the Byzantine East and the (mainly Italian) West. The investigation of this interaction has become increasingly popular in the past few decades, not least due to the relevance it has for cultural exchanges in our present-day society.

The starting point is provided by the fall of Constantinople to the troops of the fourth Crusade in 1204. In the aftermath of the fall, a number of Byzantine territories came under a prolonged Latin occupation, an occupation that forced Greeks and Latins to adapt their life socially and religiously according to the new status-quo.

The end point for the conference, 1669, is the year that Venetian Crete, one of the most fertile ‘bi-cultural’ societies that developed in this process, fell to the Ottoman Turks.

Programme

Saturday 28 March 2015, 9.30
* Angeliki Lymberopoulou (Milton Keynes), Welcome.

Morning Session – Chair: Liz James
* Angeliki Lymberopoulou (Milton Keynes), Framing of the 48th Spring Byzantine Symposium
* Jane Baun (Oxford), Whose Church is it anyway? Mediterranean Christianities in cross-cultural context.

Saturday 28 March 2015, 13.30
Afternoon Session – Chair: Leslie Brubaker
* Liz James (Sussex), Made in Byzantium? Mosaics after 1204
* Stefania Gerevini (Rome), Beyond 1204? The Baptistery of San Marco, the chapel of St Isidore, and the meaning of Byzantine visual language in fourteenth-century Venice
* Michele Bacci (Freiburg), Enhancing the Authority of Icons: Italian Frames for Byzantine Images.

Open Lecture – Chair: Angeliki Lymberopoulou
* Leslie Brubaker (Birmingham), Space, place and culture: processions across the Mediterranean.

Sunday 29 March 2015, 9.00
Morning Session – Chair: Rembrandt Duits
* Diana Newall (Kent), Artistic and Cultural Transmission through Candia in the 15th century
* Maria Constantoudaki (Athens), Aspects of Artistic Exchange on Crete. Remarks and Question Marks
* Sharon Gerstel (Los Angeles), Between east and West: Locating Monumental Painting from the Peloponnesos.

Communications – Two Parallel Sessions (please see additional programme)
* Session A: Berrill Building – Chair: Diana Newall
* Session B: Hub Theatre – Chair: Tony Eastmond.

Sunday 29 March 2015, 16.00
Afternoon Session – Chair: Dionysios Stathakopoulos
* Ioanna Christoforaki (Athens – in absentia), Crossing Boundaries: Colonial and Local Identities in the Visual Culture of Medieval Cyprus
* Tassos Papacostas (London), Where Byzantine, Gothic and Renaissance architecture crossed paths: Cyprus under Latin rule.

Open Lecture – Chair: Angeliki Lymberopoulou
* Dionysios Stathakopoulos (London), ‘Latin basillisses’: transcultural marriages in late medieval Greece.

Monday 30 March 2015, 9.00
Morning Session – Chair: Tassos Papacostas
* Tony Eastmond (London), The Byzantine Altarpiece
* Hans Bloemsma (Middelburg),Byzantine nearness and Renaissance distance in Early Italian Painting
* Rembrandt Duits (London), Artistic interactions between Byzantium and Italy in the Palaiologan era. The case of Hell
* Francesca Marchetti (London), O insignis Graecia, ecce iam tuum finem. Illustrated medical manuscripts in Late Palaeologan Constantinople and their fortune in Sixteenth Century Italy.

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Treasured Possessions at the Fitzwilliam

Fitzwilliam

EXHIBITION: Treasured Possessions from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment, The Fitzwilliam Museum, Adeane Gallery, Cambridge, 24 March – 6 September. Free admission.

A dazzling journey through the decorative arts: from the hand-crafted luxuries of the Renaissance to the first stirrings of mass commerce in the Enlightenment.

Each of the 300 beautiful and engaging objects on display was once a treasured possession, revealing the personal tastes and aspirations of its owner, and preserving precious memories. Taken together, they offer a fascinating insight into our changing relationship with the things that we wear on our bodies and keep in our homes.

To see these objects is to witness the impact of global trade on European tastes: the lust for goods imported from the East, the revolutions caused by New World products like chocolate and sugar. European shoppers were lured by dazzling colours, intricate designs, constant technological innovation and the glamour of the exotic.

The exhibition invites you back to the markets, bazaars and workshops of the past. From exquisite silks, silverware, jewels and porcelains, via shoes, armour and embroideries, to snuffboxes, fans, pocket-watches and tiny keepsakes, Treasured Possessions sets astounding and bizarre items alongside objects that we still use every day.

On the eve of the Fitzwilliam Museum’s bicentenary in 2016, this exhibition highlights the extraordinary diversity and quality of its Applied Arts collections and brings some of its least known and most intriguing artefacts out of the reserves and into public view.

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École d’été sur ‘Les incunables’

COURSE – Les incunables: de l’invention de Gutenberg à la révolution numérique,  École d’été, Médiathèque d’Orléans,  1 place Gambetta, Orléans, France, 7 – 11 juillet 2015.

Les premières éditions imprimées parues avant 1501, connues sous le nom d’incunables, ont suscité depuis trois siècles l’intérêt des bibliophiles, des chercheurs, des responsables de bibliothèques. La production de ce premier demi-siècle est aujourd’hui mieux connue grâce à des entreprises bibliographiques nationales et internationales. Quelque 30.000 éditions incunables ont été recensées, ce qui représente environ quinze millions d’exemplaires mis en circulation en une cinquantaine d’années.

Cette école d’été vise à sensibiliser le public aux problématiques de la description, du catalogage, de l’informatisation et de la numérisation des incunables. Elle entend montrer l’intérêt de leur étude scientifique, qui peut passer par l’analyse de leurs conditions de production et de leur contenu, mais aussi par la reconstitution de leur itinéraire jusqu’à nous, à travers l’étude de leurs reliures et marques de provenance.

L’informatisation des Catalogues Régionaux des Incunables du Centre-Ouest (CRIICO) est réalisée au CESR, à l’initiative et avec le soutien du Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, dans le cadre de l’Equipex Biblissima.

Programme

Mardi 7 juilet 2015, 8h45
Décrire et cataloguer les livres anciens
* Rémi Jimenes, Comment on fabrique un livre aux XVe et XVIe s.
* Christine Bénévent, Olivier Morand, Le catalogage des livres, d’hier à aujourd’hui 

Romuald Goudeseune, Séance de posters.

Mercredi 8 juilet 2015, 9h
À la découverte des incunables
* Pierre Aquilon, Frédéric Barbier, Petite histoire des incunables, de Gutenberg au premier jour de l’année 1501…
* Pierre Aquilon, Les catalogues d’incunables (ISTC, GW, CRI, CIBN…).

Équipe CRIICO: L’informatisation des catalogues d’incunables et l’établisse- ment des notices : présentation et travaux pratiques.

Jeudi 9 juilet 2015, 9h
Les enjeux de la numérisation
* Catherine Angevelle, Florent Palluault, La numérisation: solution idéale ?
* Marie-Luce Demonet, Rémi Jimenes, Toshinori Uetani, L’exemple des «Bibliothèques Virtuelles Humanistes» 
* Denis Bjaï, Marc-Edouard Gautier, Julie Sautel, Présentation d’incunables singuliers et travaux pratiques.

Vendredi 10 juilet 2015, 9h
Particularités d’exemplaires et provenances
* Isabelle de Conihout, Monique Hulvey, Reliures et marques de provenances.

Travaux pratiques: études de cas
Équipe CRIICO: Un exemple de base de possesseurs en région Centre.

Samedi 11 juilet 2015, 9h
Du livre à la bibliothèque virtuelle
* Hanno Wijsman, Les reconstitutions de bibliothèques médiévales et renais- santes
* Pierre Aquilon, Bruno Guignard, Rémi Jimenes, Olivier Morand, Toshinori Uetani, Quelques cas particuliers: la collection Lauzières-Thémines à Blois; les recueils du couvent Chezal-Benoist à Bourges; la bibliothèque de la nation germanique à Orléans.

Les participants seront avisés du résultat de la sélection par email avant le 15 mai 2015.

Date limite de candidature: 30 avril 2015.

Source: Calenda

Pisa dalla Peste alla conquista fiorentina

CONFERENCE: Pisa dalla Peste alla conquista fiorentina (1348-1406). Nuovi orientamenti per la storia di una società in crisi, Giornata di studio, Pisa, Università, Dipartimento di Civiltà e forme del Sapere (Via Pasquale Paoli 15), 10 aprile 2015.

Programma

* Giuseppe PETRALIA (Università di Pisa), Introduzione.

1. EVOLUZIONI DELLA SOCIETÀ PISANA ALLA FINE DEL MEDIOEVO
Presiede : Laurent FELLER (LAMOP/Université Paris 1)
* Mauro RONZANI (Università di Pisa), Il complesso della cattedrale nel secondo Trecento: completamento degli edifici, sviluppo degli allestimenti interni, fruizione religiosa e ‘civile’
* Sylvie DUVAL (EfR/CNRS/CIHAM), La société pisane vue à travers les testaments  (titolo provvisorio)
* Cecilia IANELLA (Università di Pisa), La rappresentazione della città. Pisa per immagini  (titolo provvisorio).

Tavola rotonda con i dottorandi:
* Marco CONTI (CIHAM), Imposer la ville: étude de la fiscalité à Bologne de la fin du XIIIe au début du XVe siècle
* Philippe LEFEUVRE (LAMOP), Les hiérarchies des sociétés rurales du Chianti (Toscane) aux XIIe et XIIIe siècles.

2. L’ECONOMIA PISANA DI FRONTE ALLA CRISI
Presiede : Armand JAMME (CNRS/CIHAM)
* Alma POLONI (Università di Pisa), Economia e società a Pisa nella seconda metà del Trecento (titolo provvisorio)
* Cédric QUERTIER (EfR/LAMOP), Les étrangers à Pise : les cas de la nation des marchands florentins et du quartier de San Vito (titolo provvisorio)
* Jérôme HAYEZ (CNRS/LAMOP), S’observer, coopérer, se fréquenter ou rester avec les siens. Les interactions entre marchands florentins et pisans dans les correspondances Datini vers 1400 
* Sandro CAROCCI (Università Roma Tor Vergata / Responsabile del progetto di ricerca “La mobilità sociale nel Medioevo italiano (secoli XII-XV)”, PRIN 2012), Conclusioni.

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